The Government of India declared 26 November as Constitution Day. It is one of the Historical day in the history of India. It is also called as Samvidhan Divas,is celebrated in India in honour of Father of Constitution of India – Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar(Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar),known as the architect of the Indian constitution.
“Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” based Democracy had came on 26th November 1949 in India. The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India, and it went into effect on 26 January 1950.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was appointed as Chairmen of the Drafting Committee that was constituted by Constituent Assembly to draft a Constitution for independent India on 29th of August 1947.
The seven members, including the Chairman of the ‘Drafting Committee’ were as follows:
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, Chairman
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (Ex- Home Minister, Bombay)
Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer(Ex- Advocate General, Madras State)
N Gopalaswami Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister, J&K, member of Nehru Cabinet)
B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate General, India)
Md. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, Muslim League member)
D P Khaitan (lawyer)
A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947. Draft constitution was debated and over 2000 amendments were moved over a period of two years. Finally on 26 Nov. 1949, the process was completed and Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete.
The Assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. The original Constitution of India is hand-written with beautiful calligraphy by Prem Behari Narain Raizada and each page beautified and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose.
Constitution of India: 26 Salient Features of the Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is a unique constitution.It provides for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and with rigidity. Since its inauguration on 26th January 1950, the Constitution India has been successfully guiding the path and progress of India.
The salient features of the Constitution of India can be discussed as follows:
1. Principles of Equality + Liberty + Fraternity + Justice as enshrined in the ‘Preamble’.
2.Fundamental Rights with reasonable restrictions, and remedies to approach the Supreme Court & High
Courts (PA RT III, Art. 226).
3. Recognition of Human Rights with ‘dignity of individual’ enshrined in the Preamble and U/A 21 (Right to Life),14 (Right to Equality) to ‘acceded to’ U/A 51C & 253.
4 written and Detailed Constitution:
indian constitution is wholly written documents.it was debated Assembly of India.
5 Rigid Constitution:
The Indian Constitution is largely a rigid.All the provisions of the Constitution concerning Union-State relations can be amended only by the joint actions of the State Legislatures and the Union Parliament. Such provisions can be amended only if the amendment is passed by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting in the Parliamentand ratified by at least one-half of the States.
6 Independent Judiciary:
the indian Constitution has provided for a Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India can declare a law as unconstitutional or ultra Vires, if it contravenes any provisions of the Constitution.In order to ensure the impartiality of the judiciary, our judges are not removable by the Executive and their salaries cannot be curtailed by Parliament.
7 Dual Government Polity:
In india there are two governmentsthe national or federal government and the government of each component unit.But in a unitary State there is only one government, namely the national government. So, India, as a federal system, has a Central and State Government.
8 Supremacy of the Constitution:
India’s Constitution is not the hand-made of either the Centre or of the States.India’s Constitution is also supreme. If for any reason any organ of the State dares to violate any provision of the Constitution, the courts of laws are there to ensure that dignity of the Constitution is upheld at all costs.
9 Division of Powers:
in India, here should be clear division of powers so that the units and the centre are required to enact and legislate within their sphere of activity and none violates its limits and tries to encroach upon the functions of othershe Seventh Schedule contains three Legislative Lists which enumerate subjects of administration, viz., Union, State and Concurrent Legislative Lists.The Concurrent List embraced 47 subjects including criminal law, marriage, divorce, bankruptcy, trade unions, electricity, economic and social planning, etc.The Union Government enjoys exclusive power to legislate on the subjects mentioned in the Union List. The State Governments have full authority to legislate on the subjects of the State List under normal circumstances.
10 Bicameral Legislature:
The Constitution of India also provides for a bicameral Legislature at the Centre consisting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.While the Lok Sabha consists of the elected representatives of people, the Rajya Sabha mainly consists of representatives elected by the State Legislative Assemblies. However, all the States have not been given equal representation in the Rajya Sabha.